跨文化交际测试题（八） I. Multiple Choice (20 points, 2 points each) Directions: There aresome statements in this section. For each statement there are four choices marked A, B, C and D, choose the ONE that best completes the statement. 1. _____ deals with a society’s tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity; it ultimately refers to man’s search for Truth. A. Cultural values B. Power distance C. Cultural dimension D. Uncertainty avoidance 2. In the _____ culture, the interest of the individual prevails over the interests of the group. A. masculinity B. femininity C. individualist D. collectivism 3. _____ style values low amount of talk, or even silence. This style can be found in high-context culture with high uncertainty avoidance. A. Elaborate B. Exacting C. Succinct D. Contextual 4. _____ style focuses on the speaker and role relationships. People with such communication style stress high power distance. This style is popular in collectivist and high-context culture. A. Contextual B. Personal C. Succinct D. Elaborate 5. _____ is the way we use fixed space and personal space. A. Olfactics B. Proxemics C. Haptics D. Kinesics 6. _____ is the environment in which the communication takes place and which helps define the communication. A. Context B. Source C. Receiver response D. Feedback 7. The ________ refers to the traumatic experience that an individual may encounter when entering a different society. A. Dissimilation B. Assimilation C. Integration D. Culture shock 8. Cultures in which less has to be said or written because more of the meaning is in the physical environment or already by people are ___________. A. Direct context B. Indirect context C. low context D. high context 9. ______ refers to hostile words and/or actions that people say or do against a certain group because that group is different. A. Hate speech B. Betrayal speech C. Patriotic speech D. Academic Speech 10. _____is considered inappropriate as a form of greeting in the United States and China. A. Etiquette B. Bowing C. Embracing D. Handshake II. Terms (15 points, 3 points each)
Directions: There arefive terms in this section. Try to explain the following terms in your own words. Then write down the answers on the Answer Sheet. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Segregation Context Interethnic Communication Collectivism IndividualismIII. Case Analysis (20 points, 5 points each) Directions: In this section you are supposed to analyze the following cases from the perspective of intercultural communication. Then write down the answers on the Answer Sheet. 16. If you are dealing with a foreign corporation in which no one speaks English as a native or second language, what may be necessary in order for your corporation and the foreign corporation to work together? How does a U.S. corporation react when the other corporation does not speak its language? If the corporation has the flexibility to deal with another company in which someone speaks its language versus one in which no one does, which company would receive the order? 17. A U.S. executive was working with a convention booth builder in England. The English would not give a date of completion for the booth or a shipping date to the United States and were not working on the booth. Every week for about six weeks, the U.S. executive would call and inquire about the state of the booth. One day the executive called and was given the usual litany of excuses so he gave the English an ultimatum. The next week the ultimatum was not acted upon, and the U.S. executive informed the company he would have a trucking company pick up and ship the booth to the United States. Twice the trucking company went to pick up the booth and was told by the English company that they were not authorized to pick up the booth. The U.S. executive finally had to hire the advertising firm in England that had originally hired the booth manufacturer to intervene and get the booth shipped. When the booth arrived in the United States, it had not been packed properly and required additional work. 18. A U.S. company sent a representative to negotiate a contract with a Japanese firm. The U.S. representative arrived at the appointed time for this meeting and was shown to the meeting room where six representatives from the Japanese firm met with him. During his presentation, the Japanese moved their heads in an up and down motion; however, they said very little. The presentation was given in English as the representative had been told the Japanese understood English. When the representative asked if there were any questions, everyone nodded politely; however, no one said a word. After a few minutes, the representative asked if they were ready to sign the contracts. One of the Japanese said,”It is very difficult for us to sign.” At this point the representative said, “Should I leave the contract with you?” The Japanese said, “Yes.” The U.S. representative returned to the United States expecting the Japanese to return the contract which did not happen. Explain what the Japanese were really saying by nodding their heads and using the word “difficult.” 19. On his first trip to Mexico, Harry, a U.S. manager interested in negotiating a contract for his firm with a Mexican firm, was invited to a dinner party by his Mexican counterpart. Since the invitation indicated that cocktails would begin at 7 p.m., Harry arrived promptly at that time. His
host seemed surprised, and no one else had arrived. People began arriving about 8 p.m.; Harry knew he had read the invitation correctly but felt he had gotten off to a bad start. IV. Short Answer (30 points, 5 points each) Directions: In this section you are supposed to answer the following questions with the knowledge of intercultural communication. Then write down the answers on the Answer Sheet. 20. Talk about differences between enculturation and acculturation. 21. What are the characteristics of communication? 22. What does Hofstede’s short-term orientation emphasize? 23. How do you understand the acceptable male/female relationship in different cultures? 24. Muslims submit to Allah through arkan ad-din, the five basic requirements or “pillar”. What are these five basic requirements? 25. How does culture affect sensing? V. English—Chinese Translation (15 points, 3 points each) Directions: In this section you are supposed to translate the underlined sentences into Chinese. Then write down the answers on the Answer Sheet. 26. Some cultural characteristics will be easy to identify, e.g. whether people are conscious of status or make displays of material wealth. But many rights are assumed, values are implied, and needs are unspoken, (e.g. for safety, security, love, a sense of belonging to a group, self-esteem, and the ability to attain one's goals). For example, issues of personal security, dignity, and control will be very different as between an abled and a disabled person. 27. Similarly, there may be problems of respect when a person from a rigidly class-based culture meets a meritocrat, or where there is racism, sexism or religious intolerance in play. 28. In such situations, identity is fundamental when disputing the proper role or "place" of the other, about who is in control of their lives, and how they present themselves to the outside world. But the reality is more deeply rooted in power relationships: about who is on top of the social, economic, and/or political hierarchy. 29. Family members or long term rivals may be obsessed with their mutual competition. The relationships between racial or ethnic groups may be affected by economic jealousy. Nations may assert that their political systems are superior. Such conflicts are difficult to resolve because no one wants to be the loser, and few are willing to share the winnings. 30. Stereotyping can aggravate these problems and prevent people from realising that there is another way to interpret a situation, or that other groups may define their rights in a different way. Hence, what may appear just or fair to one group can often seem unjust to an opposing group.