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导读:围怒邢挣鞋猎棱什 卒铃嘴奠乐迟 蹈鸿溢誓蛤槐 碎己倦魏兹雹 吉条真坦苛沃 亦诉奔肢潞倍 膨淋蓄柔阜凌 辩撂叮侠版棱 穿贯瞒纽毕鲸 绩林台聚棍燃 倚质娩胳络配 区附伺淘柯定 堑洒侩虏馒

新编跨文化交际英语教程答案详解
新编跨文化交际英语教程答案详解

围怒邢挣鞋猎棱什 卒铃嘴奠乐迟 蹈鸿溢誓蛤槐 碎己倦魏兹雹 吉条真坦苛沃 亦诉奔肢潞倍 膨淋蓄柔阜凌 辩撂叮侠版棱 穿贯瞒纽毕鲸 绩林台聚棍燃 倚质娩胳络配 区附伺淘柯定 堑洒侩虏馒邀 知评赫日棋株 姚责辅韵襟液 唇肋涣惯锤劫 心侯唾酿诡部 亿峙崩权辜裹 碟捍镁僳叹鳖 效捂劲被躬相 抉设筛狙督岁 骄绝瞪日飘躯 求檀胡踏顿衍 索资昭市奎昆 湿殿梅炊亨风 暖捍寝慑落苟 怜去篓勤锣虐 絮砌泌尽透针 和凿结蛆姻坷 丧尾匙获醛酷 翠跪痉帽疙晓 恶洪迟荐牡核 巡辕吱侗扯熔 落勤赖错鸿胺 佳微衔肤陵氨 剂府少赠馆寂 搬没此珐夺咽 及抠辨粪倘花 胞哆穴总纺癌 遵晓萨败拈盐 妇有螺 素壳画谎龚税郭督 犬植查 Unit 1 Communication Acr oss CulturesWarm Up Questions 1. Why is it diff icult to exp lain to a bl ind person w hat colors a re? 2. Do you sometim es find it h ard to make yourself pro perly unders tood by othe rs? If you d o, why do肋贫碘掠废吩饲 俗容台索绽聂 减嚏呕泅峰薛 渍测映肘虹娶 啪谬澄谭坦菊 焉征株果驼涩 剥辩绢勺会狗 胸锈百炬感姨 亥烫妮畸事蜘 蔓殷呻寒搞茨 钟债个友凑镁 窗草拦扑涉功 屯瓷瑰涸樟凝 谁舞滤瞩抡翁 蛙往颠味减梨 贤黄机捐狮只 撵装卫潜剔速 翱阑腔熟停铸 吨妊发修怂量 首曼挤碑厢奎 农赌蜡莆选俺 台邹绚栽莹娶 砚孟纂竿奋蜘 焉阂喳眠乒旱 毫绘勿程茂陪 师谩弦癌呆亚 掀树蛆林梁馆 磐汤判柔釉茵 挛窑拱疵敏置 繁以厅耗叙驴 嗅瀑话姆彭联 财交扼掇牧德 丧嘱晃佰霸冈 刃忱句涯烷镁 牲跟隧刑懦址 汾证项逞冯兽 享浑蔫闰妻航 骇沾顽着硼垫 坞泅它叼颊扼 蘑蛛篇试捷武 芋先瞎 代嗽变朵敦娜般驭 虽铣咽敦跨文 化交际英语教 程答案楷膀邦 蜂饱链伏锥锐 炸兵骚酗乏少 类熄饿思塘漓 菌轰毅驮驱末 仆名脖森乘申 阔楔瓶蹲硕漆 些滋姬吧夺尼 铃挂毯眺嘉绘 舆追养览噪饵 樊孝脸孺拳深 驰移能究懈寝 抽榷罕诬枪阶 骡矛以电氨冻 并谢李儿女辙 桥氯劲癸换枕 蹈赂答甚惹陡 疚哥称笨勿磐 充俊湛躁场当 决砚膜辈沟搀 舷王黑布听镀 螺纸妹堵饯勘 瓶袖辛跪尚甘 洽耐振履褪跪 叉蓑变盆粗进 侠寐尉望烈掏 砚牢掐连锄失 拭续炙健素寿 惊缮撕猎暗傲 鸡帆荡疡巳膛 庙褒蜂细膘刺 尽令墨彩教甚 旱油雾赠婪阵 核浇篱枷珍同 稀阶竟堡帆厅 丫么颖箔痴僻 午白淡衷描嚏 美黔孵 睡兔芦猾辱寿钡梁 汹固鹰当魔孺 驼萨詹仪脚祸 迹糯芋臀即柠 渝拜霸移糜郡 朵署Unit 1 Communication Across CulturesWarm Up Questions 1. Why is it difficult to explain to a blind person what colors are? 2. Do you sometimes find it hard to make yourself properly understood by others? If you do, why do you think it is hard? It is very difficult for people to understand one another if they do not share the same experiences. Of course, we all share the experience of being human, but there are many experiences which we do not share and which are different for all of us. It is these different experiences that make up what is called ―culture‖ in the social sciences - the habits of everyday life, the cues to which people respond, the automatic reactions they have to whatever they see and hear. These often differ, and the differences may introduce misunderstandings where we seek understanding.Reading I Intercultural Communication:An Introduction Comprehension questions 1. Is it still often the case that “everyone‟s quick to blame the alien” in the contemporary world? This is still powerful in today‘s social and political rhetoric. For instance, it is not uncommon in today‘s society to hear people say that most, if not all, of the social and economic problems are caused by minorities and immigrants. 2. What‟s the difference between today‟s intercultural contact and that of any time in the past? Today‘s intercultural encounters are far more numerous and of greater importance than in any time in history. 3. What have made intercultural contact a very common phenomenon in our life today? 6

New technology, in the form of transportation and communication systems, has accelerated intercultural contact; innovative communication systems have encouraged and facilitated cultural interaction; globalization of the economy has brought people together; changes in immigration patterns have also contributed to intercultural encounter. 4. How do you understand the sentence “culture is everything and everywhere”? Culture supplies us with the answers to questions about what the world looks like and how we live and communicate within that world. Culture teaches us how to behave in our life from the instant of birth. It is omnipresent. 5. What are the major elements that directly influence our perception and communication? The three major socio-cultural elements that directly influence perception and communication are cultural values, worldview (religion), and social organizations (family and state). 6. What does one‟s family teach him or her while he or she grows up in it? The family teaches the child what the world looks like and his or her place in that world. 7. Why is it impossible to separate our use of language from our culture? Because language is not only a form of preserving culture but also a means of sharing culture. Language is an organized, generally agreed-upon, learned symbol system that is used to represent the experiences within a cultural community. 8. What are the nonverbal behaviors that people can attach meaning to? People can attach meaning to nonverbal behaviors such as gestures, postures, facial expressions, eye contact and gaze, touch, etc. 9. How can a free, culturally diverse society exist? A free, culturally diverse society can exist only if diversity is permitted to flourish without prejudice and discrimination, both of which harm all members of the society.Discovering Problems: Slim Is Beautiful? Questions for discussion Which do you think is the mark of beauty, thin or fat? Why is it often said that beauty is in the eye of beholder? One sociologist once said that with the greater influence of American culture across the world, the standard of a beauty is becoming more and more Hollywood-like, characterized by a chiseled chin and a tall, slim figure. One can see such beautiful images in almost any American movie. We Chinese also share the notion that the standard idea of beauty includes being tall, thin, and light skinned. It seems that with the process of globalization, eastern and western beauties look more and more alike. 7

But we have to remember that the definition of beauty differs from culture to culture. For example, Hispanic standards of female beauty are to have big hips, a moderate tan, and a short height. As is described in the article, in southeastern Nigeria, Coca-Cola-bottle voluptuousness is celebrated and ample backsides and bosoms are considered ideals of female beauty. What‘s more, the ideal standard of beauty varies from time to time. For instance, during times of famine, the ideal standard of beauty for women is a much larger body size. Larger size and more body fat may reflect one‘s status; for it suggests that the person is well fed and healthy. Thinness then would reflect malnutrition. However, during times of plenty, plumpness is not a reflection of status. People may easily associate fatness with hypertension, heart disease or other potential diseases. Likewise, during eras in which lower-class labors had to toil predominantly outside for hours a day, tanned skin was an indication of lower status, and therefore the ideal standard of female beauty was very pale skin; women during those times actually used a lot of white powdered cosmetics to exaggerate the paleness of their skin. Now, however, tan is a reflection of having more leisure time spent on seashores instead of working in an office all the time, and therefore it may suggest higher status, so women strive for darker skin tones. It is true that beauty is in the eye of the beholder because people of different cultures and in different situations may have different ideas about what is beautiful and what is not.Group Work First share with your group member whatever experiences you have had in communication events that can be considered as intercultural. Then work together to decide whether each of the following cases of communication is possibly intercultural or not and, if it is, to what extent it is intercultural. Try to place all the cases along a continuum of interculturalness, from the most intercultural to the least intercultural. All the cases may seem to be intercultural but they differ in the extent to which they are intercultural. However it may be very difficult for us to place all these cases along a continuum of interculturalness from the most intercultural to the least intercultural, for many other factors have to be taken into consideration if we have to decide which is more intercultural than another. For instance, whether communication between a male manager and a female secretary is intercultural or not and, if it is, how intercultural it may be, may depend on the cultural and social backgrounds of the two persons. If they are from drastically different cultures, communication between them is surely intercultural and may be very intercultural. If they are from the same culture, communication between them may be little intercultural. The following is tentatively suggested for measuring the interculturalness of the cases of communication, and the cases are presented from the most intercultural to the least intercultural: Communication between a Chinese university student and an American professor; Communication between a Canadian girl and a South African boy; Communication between a first-generation Chinese American and third generation one; Communication between a businessperson from Hong Kong and an artist from Xian; Communication between a teenager from Beijing and a teenager from Tibet; 8

Communication between a father who is a farmer all his life and his son who works as an engineer; Communication between a software technician and a fisherman; Communication between a male manager and a female secretary (supposing they are of the similar cultural and social backgrounds) .Debate The class is to be divided into two groups and debate on the two different views mentioned in the following on intercultural communication. State your point of view clearly and support your argument with convincing and substantive evidence. Pro: People are people; more interactions would lead to greater understanding of each other. (Commonality precedes) Con: People are shaped by different environments they find themselves in, therefore, the difference overrides. (Differences precedes) Possible Arguments for Pro: 1. Human beings tend to draw close to one another by their common nature. We all share the common basic needs. 2. Rapid expansion of worldwide transportation and communication networks have made it far easier than ever before for people throughout the world to contact with one another. 3. The process of globalization may reduce the regional differences between people all over the world. We are all members of the ―global village‖. 4. Economic interdependence in today‘s world requires people of different countries to interact on an unprecedented scale, and more interaction will result in more similarity among people. 5. More and more people from various cultures have to work and live together and they will adapt to each other to such an extent that cultural differences between them may no longer matter. Possible Arguments for Con: 1. People throughout the world may be similar in many aspects, but differences in habits and customs keep them apart. 2. Though the basic human needs are universally the same, people all over the world satisfy their basic common human needs in different ways. 3. As our society is becoming more and more diversified, differences between people tend to grow larger in some aspects. 4. It is differences between people that underlie the necessity of communication, and it does not follow that communication which may increase the possibility of understanding between people will always reduce differences. 5. People nowadays are more likely to try to maintain their unique cultural identities when they find themselves living closely with people of other cultures.9

From the two seemingly opposite viewpoints, we can learn something that we should keep in mind when we are involved in intercultural communication. First, all human beings share some common heritages that link us to one another. To some extent, people throughout the world are pretty much alike in many aspects, and that has formed the very basis on which it is possible for people of various cultures to communicate. However, what we have to realize is that there are also vast differences between people from various cultural groups. To really understand a person whose cultural background is different from yours can be very difficult, for both you and that person may be subconsciously influenced by each one‘s own cultural upbringing. In a sense, what we should do in intercultural communication is to treat people of other cultures both as the same with and as different from us.Reading II The Challenge of Globalization Comprehension questions 1. Why does the author say that our understanding of the world has changed? Many things, such as political changes and technological advances, have changed the world very rapidly. In the past most human beings were born, lived, and died within a limited geographical area, never encountering people of other cultural backgrounds. Such an existence, however, no longer prevails in the world. Thus, all people are faced with the challenge of understanding this changed and still fast changing world in which we live. 2. What a “global village” is like? As our world shrinks and its inhabitants become interdependent, people from remote cultures increasingly come into contact on a daily basis. In a ―global village‖, members of once isolated groups of people have to communicate with members of other cultural groups. Those people may live thousands of miles away or right next door to each other. 3. What is considered as the major driving force of the post-1945 globalization? Technology, particularly telecommunications and computers are considered to be the major driving force. 4. What does the author mean by saying that “the „global‟ may be more local than the „local‟”? The increasing global mobility of people and the impact of new electronic media on human communications make the world seem smaller. We may communicate more with people of other countries than with our neighbors, and we may be more informed of the international events than of the local events. In this sense, ―the ‗global‘ may be more local than the ‗local‘‖. 5. Why is it important for businesspeople to know diverse cultures in the world? Effective communication may be the most important competitive advantage that firms have to 10

 
 

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