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 时间:2018-06-29 05:41:20 贡献者:sly750119

导读:英语单词的结构什么是词?词是能独立运用的、最小的、有语义的语言单位。就其句法功能来说,词可以分为 功能词(function word)和实义词(content word)两类。功能词指的是没有完整词汇

英语单词的构成
英语单词的构成

英语单词的结构什么是词?词是能独立运用的、最小的、有语义的语言单位。

就其句法功能来说,词可以分为 功能词(function word)和实义词(content word)两类。

功能词指的是没有完整词汇意 义但有语法意义或语法功能的词,包括________、________、__________、________、 _________、_________等。

实义词指的是本身有完整词汇意义的词,包括__________、 _________、__________、_________等。

英语单词是由字母拼写而成的,可以由一个字母组成一个单词,如______,也可以 由 45 个字母组成一个单词,如: (n.肺尘病) 。

英语单词的内部结构也不尽相同,让我们来分析以下三组词: 1. book, books, bookish, bookcase 2. tolerate, tolerance, tolerant, toleration, tolerable, intolerable 3. telephone, telegram, telescope, telecommunication 在第一组词里,book 可以再分吗? 在第二组词中,toler ate ance ation able in 第三组例词中都有一个共同成分_________, 意思是__________,-phone 有声音的意思, 如 microphone; -gram 往往表示书写或描绘出来的东西,如 telegram; -scope 表示“观察的仪 器,…镜” ,如 microscope. 从上面的分析可以看出,如果撇出能不能独立运用这一点,词就不是最小的有语义的单 位,语言中最小的“语音和语义的结合体”称为“词素”(morpheme)。

上述三组词中, 除了 book 外,都是由两个或两个以上的词素组成的。

什么是词素? 二、派生 Derivation 前缀 前缀 含义 a处在„„ en使可能 disun-例词 arise, aside, alone enrich, enable, enslave dissatisfy, dishonest, disappear, disorder, disagree unable, unknown, uncommon, uncomfortable, unfair, unclose, undress, uncover, untie

inimirilnondeantimisre coex tele superunderintersubtransvicesemibi tri multikilo后缀不,非inactive, incapable, inpatient, incorrectimpossible, impersonal, impolite, immature, impractical不,非向相反方向发展反(对)共同 以前的 远程相互,之间 下,次 过,穿过,变 副 半 两个 三个 多,多种 千irregular, irresponsible illogical, non existent, non-interference, non-conductor, non-stop Decentralize(分散), defrost(解冻) anti-freeze, anti-fascist misdoings, misunderstand, misfortune rewrite, remarry, reunite, recycle, co-exist, co-operate, co-education Ex-husband, ex-president telephone, telegraph, telescope supermarket, superpower, underline, underestimate, underground, international, interact, inter-change subtitle, submarine, subconscious, subcontinent, transformation(变形), translate vice-premier, vice-president semifinal, semicircle, semi-automatic bicycle, biennial 两年一次的 triangle 三角形, tricycle 三轮脚踏车, triplets 三胞胎 multiply, multi-national, multi-coloured,multicultural kilometre, kilogram后 缀 -er -ess -or -ar -ese -ian -ist -ent/-ant -ment -ness princess,例词名 词beggar Chinese, Portuguese, Japanese musician, Egyptian, physician communist, socialist, assistant argument, judgment, government happiness, greatness, illness, coldness, sleeplessness

-tion -ing -ship -age -ty -th -ance -ence -ful -al -y -dom -ism building, wedding, painting leadership, friendship, hardship shortage, marriage, leakage loyalty, cruelty, penalty, sixty, twenty, thirty, certainty truth, warmth, length, growth, fifteenth, fourth acceptance, assistance, reliance, appearance dependence, confidence, reference, entrance, defence mouthful, handful, plateful, refusal, denial, arrival difficulty, possibility, freedom, wisdom, kingdom socialism, materialism注意: -ese, -ian, -ist 既可以构成名词,又可以构成形容词。

-er 构成的名词,既有表示人的,又有表示物的。

后 缀 例 词 -al central, industrial, national, natural -an European, American, Australian -ern eastern, northern, southern -able reasonable, horrible, terrible, believable, comfortable, forgettable, sensible -ful careful, cheerful, grateful, faithful, -ish childish, Swedish, selfish -ive destructive, collective, active, creative, effective -y thirsty, dirty, windy, sunny, cloudy, healthy, funny -less careless, hopeless, helpless, homeless, sleepless, fearless, limitless -en golden, wooden, woolen -ous courageous, famous, continuous, serious, various 形 -ary imaginary, revolutionary, secondary 容 -ic realistic, historic, poetic 词 -some troublesome, burdensome, lonesome, handsome -like childlike, womanlike, manlike -ant ignorant, significant, observant, important -ent diligent, silent, excellent, frequent -ly lively, friendly, lovely, weekly, brotherly, motherly

-ish 后 缀 -ize -en -fy 后 缀 -ward(s) -ly ( ) 1. enrichchildish, foolish 例 词 realize, modernize, mechanize, criticize, widen, strengthen, lengthen, sharpen, widen, shorten, quicken, deepen Simplify, beautify, terrify, 例 词 forward, northward, backward, downward slowly, quickly, carefully, loudly, happily, friendly A. trying to find jobs B. remove, get rid of ice, frost C. of, having, using imagination D. make or become sharp E. half a circle F. causing trouble G. make rich, improve in quality, flavour, etc. H. without limit动 词副 词Match the right words from the right column with the words on the left. ( ) 2. semicircle ( ) 3. troublesome ( ) 4. sharpen ( ) 5. job-hunting ( ) 6. limitless ( ) 7. imaginative ( ) 8. defrostUse the appropriate form of the words to fill in the blanks. 1. The mother didn’t know why her daughter was crying _______. (noise) 2. He was one of the best _______ in yesterday’s football match. (play) 3. Look! How ______ Kate is laughing! (happy) 4. It snowed _____ last night and now the streets are covered with snow. (heavy) 5. Edison was a great ______. During his life he had many ______. (invent) 6. More and more _____ have come to visit China over these years. (foreign) 7. We want _________ reasons for your failure to help. (satisfy) 8. Please give me some reference work. It will ______ my task. (simple) 9. The boy had the _______ of being half starved. (appear) 10. The police have _______ a plot against the President. (cover) 11. The doctor said that Mary’s mother needed an _______.(operate)

12. She hoped that her son would become a _______. (music) 13. Few ______ words made us excited. 15. Thank you for your _________. (kind) 16. Many college students work while they are studying because they want to make some money for their college _____. (expensive) 17. Most international ______ letters are written in English, too. anything about it. (correct) _____ do. (Rome) 20. The teacher was pleased with her _______. (honest) (busy) 18. The boy noticed an ______ mistake on his paper, but he decided not to say 19. When in Rome, do as the (speak) 14. The days on the moon get hotter than ______ water. (boil)

 
 

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