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 时间:2018-11-05 13:53:45 贡献者:朱晓勇

导读:中考英语专题复习一:名词考点讲解和训练【考点直击】 1.可数名词和不可数名词的用法; 2.名词所有格的构成及用法; 3.近义名词的辨析。 【名师点睛】 一、名词的数 1.单数和复数

2013年中考英语总复习_语法专题1-名词答案ppt
2013年中考英语总复习_语法专题1-名词答案ppt

中考英语专题复习一:名词考点讲解和训练【考点直击】 1.可数名词和不可数名词的用法; 2.名词所有格的构成及用法; 3.近义名词的辨析。

【名师点睛】 一、名词的数 1.单数和复数 可数名词有单数和复数两种形式。

复数形式通常是在单数形式后加词尾“-s”构成,其主 要变法如下: (1)一般情况在词尾加-s,例如:book→books,girl→girls,boy→boys, pen→pens,doctor→doctors, boy→boys。

(2) 以 s,x,ch,sh,结尾的词加-es,例如:bus→buses,class→classes,box→boxes, watch→watches,brush→brushes。

(3)以 ce, se, ze,(d)ge 结尾的名词加 s,例如:orange—oranges。

(4)以辅音母加 y 结尾的词变“y”为“i”再加-es,例如:city→cities, factory→factories, country→countries, family→families。

但要注意的是以元音字母加 y 结尾的名词的复 数形式只加 s,如:boy→boys, day→days。

(5)以 o 结尾的词多数都加-es。

例如:hero→heroes,potato→potatoes,tomato→tomatoes, 但词末为两个元音字母的词只加-s。

例如:zoo→zoos,radio→radios,还有某些外来 词也只加-s,例如:photo→photos,piano→pianos。

(6) 以 f 或 fe 结尾的词,多数变 f 为 v 再加-es,例如:knife→knives,leaf→leaves, half→halves。

复数词尾 s(或 es)的读音方法如下表所示。

复数词尾 s(或 es)的读音方法 情 况 读法 [s] [iz] [z] cups, hats, cakes glasses, pages, oranges, buses, watches,faces beds, dogs, cities, knives 例 词在[p][t][k][f]等清辅音后 在[s][z][t][ ][F]等音后在[b][d][ ][v]等浊辅音后(7)少数名词有不规则的复数形式,例如:man→men,woman→women,tooth→teeth, foot→feet,child→children,mouse→mice。

【注意】与 man 和 woman 构成的合成词,其复数形式也是-men 和-women。

例如:an Englishman,two Englishmen。

但 German 不是合成词,故复数形式为 Germans;man, woman 等作定语时,它的单复数以其所修饰的名词的单复数而定,如:men workers, women teachers。

有个别名词单复数一样,例如:Chinese,Japanese,sheep,deer,fish 等。

但当 fish 表 示不同种类的鱼时,可以加复数词尾。

(8)单数形式但其意为复数的名词有:people, police 等。

(9) 数词+名词作定语时, 这个名词一般保留单数形式, 中间加连字符。

例如: ten-minutes’ walk, an 8-year-old girl, a ten-mile walk。

(10)还有些名词仅有复数形式,如:trousers,clothes,chopsticks,glasses,goods,ashes, scissors,compasses。

(11)只用作单数的复数形式的名词有: 科学名词:physics, mathematics/maths 游戏名称:bowls 专有名词:the United States, Niagara Falls 其他名词:news, falls 2.不可数名词“量”的表示方法 在英语中,不可数名词如果要表示“量”的概念,可以用以下两种方法: (1)用 much, a little, a lot of/lots of, some, any 等表示多少,例如: The rich man has a lot of money. There is some milk in the bottle. Is there any water in the glass? I don't like winter because there's too much snow and ice. (2)用 a piece of 这类定语,例如: a piece of paper a piece of wood a piece of bread a bottle of orange a glass of water(milk) a cup of tea a cup of tea a bag of rice three bags of rice 如果要表示“两杯茶”、“四张纸”这类概念时,在容器后加复数,例如: two cups of tea four pieces of paper three glasses of water 不可数名词也可用 a lot of, lots of, some, any, much 等来修饰。

二、名词的所有格 名词所有格,用来表示人或物的所有,以及领属关系。

1. 表示有生命的名词的所有格其单数形式是加 's,其复数形式是 s',例如:a student's room, students' rooms, father's shoes。

2. 如其结尾不是 s 的复数形式仍加 's,如:Children's Day。

3. 在表示时间、 距离、 长度、 重量、 价格、 世界、 国家等名词的所有格要用 's, 例如: a twenty minutes' walk,ten miles' journey,a boat's length,two pounds' weight, ten dollars' worth。

4. 无生命名词的所有格则必须用 of 结构, 例如: a map of China, the end of this term, the capital of our country, the color of the flowers。

5. 双重所有格,例如:a friend of my father's。

【注意】 如果两个名词并列,并且分别有 's,则表示“分别有”,例如:John's and Mary's rooms (约翰和玛丽各有一间,共两间);Tom's and Mary's bikes(两人各自的自行车)。

两个名词并列,只有一个's,则表示“共有”,例如:John and Mary's room(约翰和玛丽 共有一间);Tom and Mary's mother(即 Tom 与 Mary 是兄妹)。

【实例解析】 1.These _________ have saved many children’s lives. A. woman doctors B. women doctor

C. women doctorsD. woman doctor答案:C。

该题考查的是名词作定语时的变化。

woman 作定语时要和被修饰的名词保持 数的一致。

2.This is _________ bedroom. The twin sisters like it very much. A. Anne and Jane B. Anne’s and Jane’s C. Anne’s and Jane D. Anne and Jane’s 答案: D。

该题考查的是并列名词的所有格。

两人共有一个房间时, 只在后面的名词后加’s。

3.---Are there any ________ on the farm? ---Yes, there are some. A. horse B. duck C. chicken D. sheep 答案:D。

该题考查的是特殊名词的复数形式。

从谓语动词来判断,主语应该是复数名词。

只有 sheep 可用作复数名词。

4.---What would you like to drink, ________ or orange? ---Orange, please. A. hamburger B. chip C. tea 答案:C。

该题考查的是名词的类别。

三种东西中只有 tea 能喝。

【中考演练】 一. 单项填空 1.--- Where have you been, Tim? --- I’ve been to ______. A. the Henry house B. the Henry family C. The Henry’s home D. Henry’s 2.In England, if ____ is in the middle of the day, the evening meal is called supper. A. food B. lunch C. breakfast D. dinner 3.You looked for it twice, but you haven’t found it. Why not try ____ . A. three times B. a third time C. the third time D. once 4.--- They are thirsty. Will you please give them ______ ? --- Certainly. A. some bottles of waters B. some bottles of water C. some bottle of water D. some bottle of waters 5.Mike hurt one of his ______ in the accident yesterday. A. tooth B. feet C. hand D. ear 6.There is some _______ on the plate. A. cakes B. meat C. potato D. pears 7.In England, the last name is the _______ . A. family name B. middle C. given name D. full name 8.The are going to fly _______ to Beijing. A. Germen B. Germany C. Germanys D. Germans 9.The______ has two _______ . A. boys; watches B. boy; watch C. boy; watches D. boys; watch 10.The little baby has two _______ already. A. tooth B. tooths C. teeth D. teeths 11.What’s your _______ for being late again?

A. idea B. key C. excuse D. news 12.--- It’s dangerous here. We’d better go out quickly. --- But I think we should let _______ go out first. A. woman and children B. women and child C. woman and child D. women and children 13.--- You can see Mr. Smith if there is a sign “_______ ”on the door of his shop. --- Thanks. A.ENTRANCE B.BUSINESS HOURS C.THIS SIDE UP D.NO SMOKING 14.Are they going to have a picnic on _______ ? A. Children’s Day B. Childrens’s Day C. Childrens Day D. Children Day 15.Where are the students? Are they in _______ ? A. the Room 406 B. Room 406 C. the 406 Room D. 406 Room 二. 根据下列句子的情景及所给汉语注释,写出所缺单词。

1. We’ve got a lot of new ________(杂志) in our school library. 2. Please turn to another _______(频道), I don’t like this show. 3. Yesterday the _________(航班) to London was put off because of the bad weather. .4. Autumn is my favourite (季节) 5. ---How many _______(小刀) do you have? ---Three. 6. __________ are widely used in the modern world. 7. June 1st is __________(儿童) Day. 8. Mary, would you please tell me your new ________(地址) so that I can write to you. 9. ---Does this piece of ______(音乐) sound nice? ---Yes. It’s wonderful! 10. May 12th is the International _______(护士) Day. Let’s say “ Thanks” to them for their work. 三. 根据句意和所给首字母写出所缺的单词。

1. “What’s your n_______?” “Li Lei.” 2. How many d_______ does your uncle have? 3. Please close the w______. It’s cold outside. 4. If you want study English well, you must pay attention to your p________. 5. A computer is one of the greatest i_________ in the world. 6. Zhang Hui is very excited. He will go to Japan with his p_______ during the Spring Festival. 7. At the a______ of seven, the lonely girl had to work to make living. 8. It’s only about an h_____ flight from Qingdao to Beijing by air. 9. Health is more important to me than m_______. 10. Be careful! It’s d__________ to run across the street now. 【练习答案】 一.1.D 2.B 3.B 4.B 5.B 6.B 7.A 8.D 9.C 10.C 11.C 12.D 13.B 14.A 15.B 二.1.magazines 2.Channel 3. flight 4.season 5. knives 6. Computers 7. Children’s 8. address 9. music 10. Nurses’可数名词有单数 和复数两种形 式。

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